The drift-kinetic code VENUS-LEVIS was designed to simulate a wide variety of physical phenomena related to fast particles in electromagnetic fields. The code uses a 4th order Runge-Kutta method to solve the single particle equations of motion, either in the guiding-centre approximation or following the full particle orbits. The formulation is independent of coordinate choice and handles 3D time-varying electromagnetic fields. The interaction with the background plasma as well as

A billion trillion “clashes” make a plasma

A systematic treatment of microscopic collisions to extend fluid models of plasmas At the microscopic level, binary collisions between charged particles conserve two fundamental quantities, namely momentum and energy. This conservation must be present in fluid models in order to describe the macroscopic evolution of plasmas correctly. A systematic treatment of collisional effects is presented to derive fluid models beyond the usual assumption of “thermal equilibrium”. Such extended models will